Ocean Currents » shellfish http://blog.oceanconservancy.org News, opinions, photos and facts from Ocean Conservancy Tue, 25 Apr 2017 13:47:57 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.4.2 Victory for New York Waters http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/12/08/victory-for-new-york-waters/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/12/08/victory-for-new-york-waters/#comments Thu, 08 Dec 2016 13:55:59 +0000 Guest Blogger http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=13452

This piece was written by Mike Martinsen, Co-founder and Co-president of Montauk Shellfish Company Inc.

For forty years, I have worked as a bayman in New York’s rich waters. You could find me bullraking hard clams, sail dredging oysters, dredging bay scallops and potting lobster. I have earned a living from these waters my whole life. Declines—and the occasional full crash—in  shellfish stocks, however, have forced me to look at other occupations.

Once upon a time, billions upon billions of bivalve shellfish carpeted the bottoms of New York’s bays, harbors, rivers and sounds. But, through unlimited fossil fuel consumption, poor septic planning and a lack of regulation on pesticide and fertilizer purchase and application, we have created a void in the water. The population of bivalve shellfish has declined precipitously.

There is good news on the horizon for me, my fellow baymen and all of you who love our seafood. Last week, New York enacted legislation forming a task force which will identify any sources of acidification in New York waters, and recommend how to address them. Using best available science to fix this problem is written into the law, and this first step to protect the local ocean is a milestone victory in my eyes. This is how smart, comprehensive restoration of our historic oyster reefs, eelgrass beds and coastal ecosystems starts.

Since the beginning of Montauk Shellfish Company Inc., a company I co-founded in 2009, which farms our exclusive Montauk Pearl Oysters, I found that shellfish aquaculture is very important.  Bivalve shellfish in the New York estuaries are probably the most underappreciated living creatures. As filter feeders, they are responsible for maintaining balance with regard to water quality. The beauty of our operation is that each mature oyster will filter approximately 50 gallons of water per day. That means last year our farm filtered approximately 75,000,000 gallons of water each day! Also, the mature oysters had successful reproduction and the spat (tiny little babies) has landed at distant locales helping to promote the wild population growth.

As an aquaculturist, I can take pride in knowing that I am helping to rebuild the wild stock of shellfish in the marine environment. Without those filter feeders, water quality does not stand a chance. Nitrogen has become problematic and algal blooms have wreaked havoc on water quality.

There are things we can do to help mitigate the problems in our local waters. Awareness of how our consumption of fossil fuels and usage of household items can harm the estuary is key. Additionally, promoting shellfish aquaculture and protecting wild stocks will allow balance to be restored. A thriving shellfish stock allows the crucial roles of the natural filtration system, habitat source for juvenile fish and reef-like shoreline structure, to be enjoyed.  All are paramount to the wellness of the estuary.

Monitoring water quality and creating legislation that reduces nitrogen input into the waters will be very important. However there is a very large monster out there that is just beginning to rear its ugly head. Ocean acidification has decimated juvenile shellfish in other places in the world. We know that larval shellfish are strongly affected by ocean acidification and that they cannot form the necessary shell to survive in an acidic environment. Many wonder if this could be as big a factor as nitrogen induced algal blooms in the system collapses we’ve seen.

It’s imperative that we begin to understand the impacts of our current fossil fuel emissions on the ocean. It’s imperative that we take responsibility for the damages that we have caused. And it’s imperative that we begin to act more responsibly toward life as a whole and especially the ocean—the mother of all life, the mother we all share. If the world is your oyster, why not work toward pristine water quality?

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Eight Generations http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/21/eight-generations/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/21/eight-generations/#comments Thu, 21 Jul 2016 13:44:29 +0000 Ryan Ono http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=12447

Can you imagine a family in the same business for eight generations?  Talk about dedication and deep expertise! That is what struck me when I met the Haward family, who has been farming oysters since the 1700s.  Last month in West Mersea, England, I had the privilege of visiting Richard Haward’s Oysters. I was hosted by Richard himself, along with his son Bram. These men have inherited a craft honed by their great, great, great, great grandparents, but they are living in a time of unprecedented environmental change. And that is precisely why I was there, along with four American shellfish farmers. Specifically, we traveled to the United Kingdom to talk about ocean acidification and how it threatens the livelihoods and traditions of people who rely on the sea.

Earlier this week I wrote about the formal (and informal) discussions we had about ocean acidification with U.K. shellfish farmers, scientists and policymakers. We talked about its impacts on U.S. oyster and shellfish health and how we’ve started to address it on both sides of the Atlantic. We learned about the oyster farms, growing techniques, and water quality issues in the U.K.

Today, I’m writing about the people on the water whose lives would be directly affected by acidification.

I’m also showing more photos so you get a sense of Richard’s family, his business, the water where the oysters are harvested and of course, the oysters.

Here’s what we saw and learned:

We traveled about two hours by train and car from London to West Mersea, a small, breezy fishing town on the mostly farmland island of Mersea. Our trip took place during a pleasant window of sunny weather before the rain came later that afternoon. Credit: Katy Davidson A photo of everyone who came on the trip in front of Richard’s family restaurant. Front L-R: Terry Sawyer, Silvana Birchenough, Ryan Ono, Theresa Douthwright (SoleShare partner), Jack Clarke (SoleShare); Back (L-R): Bill Dewey, Richard Haward, Dan Grosse and Mike Martinsen. Credit: Katy Davidson After meeting Richard at the restaurant, we split into two groups on different boats to dredge for two different species of oysters in the River Blackwater. Credit: Katy Davidson Richard (right) and Terry Sawyer (left) of Hog Island Oyster Co.  in California discuss how the oysters (Crassostrea gigas or Pacific oysters) just harvested in their hands have become prolific around the world, and in fact Terry and others from the Pacific Coast grow the same oyster species, originally from Japan. In England, these have supplemented low production of native European oysters (Ostrea edulis, or European flats). Credit: Ryan Ono Me holding a “native” European oyster. These are rarer in Europe due to overfishing and pollution since the late 1800s, and are sold at a premium. In raw form on a half-shell, they can retail up to $4 each in upscale London oyster bars. Credit: Ryan Ono Terry talks to Jack Clarke of SoleShare, our trip organizers, about the 4-6 years of growth “natives” need to achieve market-size, with Terry holding one in his hand. Credit: Ryan Ono Cefas scientist Silvana Birchenough (left) asks Bill Dewey (right) of Taylor Shellfish Farms in Washington State about the impact of ocean acidification on the Pacific Northwest shellfish industry over the years. Credit: Katy Davidson Harvesting oysters on the River Blackwater. Richard and his family place baby oysters, or spat, from a hatchery onto the riverbed. The spat are allowed to grow for a few years before harvest. Not all oyster farmers dredge their shellfish from the riverbed though. Other production methods include the use of plastic mesh bags and metal cages in which the baby oysters grow, suspended just above the ocean or river floor. Credit: Katy Davidson One of Richard’s workers searches for the best, market-sized Pacific oysters in this haul. They are then brought to shore, purified (see later photo), and shipped off to customers. Credit: Katy Davidson A box of the Pacific oysters ready to be weighed, packed, sold and shipped. These either go directly to customer homes in wooden boxes to allow for air circulation, are sold at one of Richard’s seafood restaurants, or shipped to restaurants all over Europe.Credit: Katy Davidson Talking more oysters on the boat. Conversations ranged from the market prices of oysters, and time and labor spent harvesting, to the history of the industry. A common concern shared by farmers around the globe is disease outbreak. And unfortunately the UK oyster industry was hit with vibrio disease outbreaks as recently as 2011 that decimated production for some farms. Mike Martinsen of the Montauk Shellfish Company is in his famous hat in the middle. Richard leads us on a tour of his facility where, after harvest, the oysters are stored in clean water to help flush out any impurities or bacteria in tanks for about 48 hours before they are shipped off for human consumption. Credit: Katy Davidson After a tough day sightseeing and talking shop, we met back at the restaurant and enjoyed some oysters and beer! Here, Dan Grosse of Toby Island Bay Oyster Farm and I raise a few shells. Credit: Katy Davidson


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Oysters and Beer http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/19/oysters-and-beer/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/19/oysters-and-beer/#comments Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:00:27 +0000 Ryan Ono http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=12421

I don’t always drink beer. But when I do, I drink it while eating oysters. Or at least that’s what I did in London a few weeks ago, with oyster farmers shucking local oysters right on the pub tables.

One of the perks of my job is to talk with oyster farmers, and oftentimes the most productive conversations and connections happen over drinks. In this instance, I was with American farmers Bill Dewey of Taylor Shellfish Farms, Dan Grosse of Toby Island Bay Oyster Farm, Mike Martinsen of Montauk Shellfish Company and Terry Sawyer of Hog Island Oyster Company to talk about ocean acidification with shellfish farmers, scientists and government policy staff from the United Kingdom. After a long day of meetings we went to a pub in London to continue the discussion, and one of the UK farmers, Tristan Hugh-Jones of Rossmore Oysters, actually brought native oysters from his farm to share right in the pub. I’m not sure how much the pub employees appreciated it, but seeing all the growers compete for quickest and cleanest shucking job was entertaining for everyone.

Earlier that day we had hosted a workshop covering the impacts of ocean acidification, diseases and water quality issues that harm bivalve shellfish with UK shellfish farmers, scientists and government policy staff.  Fishermen, shellfish farmers and coastal communities in both countries rely on a healthy ocean as an economic resource, and they all want to keep it that way. The $51 million (£33 million) shellfish aquaculture industry in the U.K. employs over 700 people in areas with scarce employment opportunities. But this industry is in jeopardy: Carbon dioxide emissions, emitted by all nations, are creating more acidic seawater that harms a number of commercially valuable species including oysters, mussels, clams, corals and crustaceans.

A few U.K. shellfish farmers are becoming concerned over this environmental threat and want to learn more. At the workshop, they did just that. Bill and Terry, farmers from the U.S. Pacific Coast explained how ocean acidification contributed to multiple years of oyster seed die-offs to their industry almost ten years ago. Dan and Mike from the U.S. Atlantic Coast followed up noting that, while they have not yet felt any direct impacts, they are motivated to learn about this issue, and take preventative action to avoid the kinds of oyster die-offs the West Coast has experienced.

It’s common for crops of oysters to die unexpectedly in any location, including the U.K., but right now, there’s no way to tell in the U.K. whether this is due to acidification. During our workshop, U.K. scientists Dr. Rob Ellis and Dr. Silvana Birchenough presented research showing local bivalves and crustaceans grow slower and survive less often under acidification conditions in lab settings. They also projected that U.K. aquaculture and wild fishery industries in the future would suffer between $1.8 million (£1.4 million) and $11.8 million (£9.1 million) in annual loses depending on global carbon emission rates.

As individuals have become increasingly aware of the harm carbon dioxide emissions have on their daily lives, they have pushed their governments to act.  The commitments made during and following the COP21 Conference this past December were a huge step towards cutting back emissions around the world. And this September, the 3rd international Our Ocean conference offers another opportunity for countries to act on acidification and other global ocean problems such as marine pollution and overfishing.

The U.K. and other countries have made important commitments to protect the ocean through this conference series. And I for one hope that the voices of the shellfish farmers and other ocean users push our leaders to take even bolder conservation steps, because I like my oysters, and I want to eat them whenever I want in the future, with or without the beer.

Stay tuned tomorrow for photos and a report from the field trip our American delegation took to visit one oyster farm in Essex County. We were there to see their growing areas and learn about the local water quality. I’ll share what we learned in tomorrow’s follow-up blog post.

 

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Tackling Ocean Acidification in Florida http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/06/tackling-ocean-acidification-in-florida/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/07/06/tackling-ocean-acidification-in-florida/#comments Wed, 06 Jul 2016 14:27:36 +0000 Guest Blogger http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=12385

As the state representative for the Florida Keys and South Miami-Dade County, there are few things more important to our well-being than the health of our unique marine environment. We are home to the Everglades, the 3rd largest barrier reef in the world and the only living barrier reef in the continental United States. Since I took office, I have made it a priority to do everything I can to help raise awareness about our water issues in Tallahassee and we’ve made great progress in the last four years when it comes to improving water quality.

Despite this progress, there are still many stressors facing Florida’s oceans and ocean acidification (OA) is a particularly significant threat. Its impacts on our marine ecosystems are less visible so it has not been as widely discussed as other environmental threats, but that is starting to change, and I am excited to help bring further awareness to this issue. Side effects of acidification like decreases in coral reproduction, growth and calcification as well as slower shellfish growth mean that this is not an issue we can afford to ignore. Already, other fisheries across the country are seeing serious economic impacts from OA and if it continues unchecked, the impacts to Florida businesses and residents could be equally devastating.

I was first introduced to this issue by fellow lawmakers in Washington who have been aggressively researching OA after the Northwest lost 75% of their oyster larvae due to the increasing acidity levels. In the Florida Keys, our two biggest economic drivers are tourism and commercial/recreational fishing, so it is up to us to proactively start addressing the impacts of OA before our fisheries and tourism industries are adversely impacted. That’s why I was extremely excited to participate in a stakeholder workshop on this issue with the Ocean Conservancy and the University of Miami. The workshop provided an incredible opportunity for stakeholders on all sides of this issue to get together and discuss not just the science of OA but what policy decisions and approaches we can take moving forward to try and mitigate the risks to Florida’s oceans.

In order to move forward on this issue, we need to have a broad coalition of support and input and I believe that this workshop was a wonderful step in raising awareness and creating a framework for collaboration between stakeholders. Our waterways and reefs are our lifeblood. It is that collaboration and coordination among different groups that will help us drive this issue forward at the state level, find meaningful ways to combat the effects of ocean acidification, and protect the many industries that depend on a healthy marine environment.

Representative Holly Raschein is a Republican member of the Florida House of Representatives, representing the 120th District, which includes Monroe County and southern Miami-Dade County, since 2012.

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West Coast Scientists Weigh Actions Against Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/04/04/west-coast-scientists-weigh-actions-against-ocean-acidification-and-hypoxia/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2016/04/04/west-coast-scientists-weigh-actions-against-ocean-acidification-and-hypoxia/#comments Mon, 04 Apr 2016 17:05:57 +0000 Sarah Cooley http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=11843

Ten years ago, I was finishing graduate school. I was becoming an expert on how carbon dioxide is stored in the world’s oceans, but – and this seems weird to me now – I hadn’t heard about ocean acidification. Hardly anyone had. Only a handful of scientists had started to realize that as the ocean sops up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, ocean chemistry changes in ways that can hurt fish, shellfish, and corals.

Just five years later, concern about ocean acidification had grown dramatically, and thousands of people were involved. West Coast shellfish growers were trying to save their hatcheries from the effects of ocean acidification, while scientists were scrambling to offer information and solutions. Ocean Conservancy began working on this issue in 2012, helping bring affected business people, policy makers, and scientists together during the initial search for solutions in Washington State, whose shellfish hatcheries experienced dramatic die-offs of their oyster larvae.

Even though ocean acidification is a very young issue, the West Coast has been a consistent leader in the search for solutions. Today, the West Coast Ocean Acidification and Hypoxia Science Panel, a group of scientists from research universities spanning the entire coast convened by California Ocean Science Trust, has just released a synthesis of the current state of scientific knowledge about ocean acidification and hypoxia in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia and what management options might be used to address these issues there.

Their findings boil down to two main themes: 1) We need to reduce exposure of marine species and ecosystems, particularly by decreasing carbon and nitrogen pollution and investigating strategies to remove carbon dioxide from the water; and, 2) we also need to improve the ability of marine life to cope with changes by reducing other stresses, like warming ocean temperatures, and improving animals’ own capacity to adapt.

Credit: OAH Panel

There’s a good amount of research still to be done before their findings can be put into action, though.  The panel agrees that we need to understand where local pollutants will worsen ocean acidification and hypoxia, and that we need to develop robust predictive models to forecast hotspots. We also need to find ways to reduce pollutant inputs while also rewarding local government agencies and businesses that do so, and we need water quality goals that incorporate ocean acidification. We need pilot projects to determine whether and where carbon dioxide removal could help, and whether ocean conservation or restoration can guard against damage from ocean acidification and hypoxia. We need to develop and refine resource management rules that take ocean acidification into account. We need to understand the pros and cons of selective breeding or aquaculture to improve species’ ability to adapt.

To that end, the Panel makes several research recommendations to fill the knowledge gaps that currently stand between the science and managing with ocean acidification in mind. They underscore the need for research partnerships and coordinated monitoring, which will all make the most of the historical strong collaboration on the West Coast on ocean acidification and hypoxia.

This report is the next big step towards taking care of our local ocean life in the face of large-scale environmental changes that threaten it. And doing that right will also take care of the people and businesses that depend on a healthy ocean.

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Talking Louisiana Oysters http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/12/14/talking-louisiana-oysters/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/12/14/talking-louisiana-oysters/#comments Mon, 14 Dec 2015 14:00:35 +0000 Ryan Ono http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=11222

Ah, Louisiana. Famous for seafood dishes including shrimp étouffée, oyster po’boys and blackened redfish.  Although some of you reading may now be thinking of lunch, there are some great stories behind the recipes, and the efforts people make to secure your meal’s ingredients now and in the future.

One of those people is Dr. John Supan, the Louisiana Sea Grant Oyster Research Laboratory Director who oversees a new oyster hatchery on Grand Isle that provides the larvae, or “seed”, for shellfish farmers and oyster reef rehabilitation efforts.  We recently asked him some questions about how this hatchery helps ensure coastal areas are resilient not only for Louisiana’s culinary history, but also for the regional ecosystem.

Oysters provide a number of services to the natural environment. They improve water quality by filtering water as they feed, help prevent coastal erosion, and also provide habitat for fish and other species. However, oysters and the people that grow them face a number of threats.

Ocean acidification endangers oyster production around the country, and the shellfish aquaculture industry is leading the charge to raise awareness of this threat.  A result of a combination of carbon pollution and nitrogen runoff pollution from urban and rural areas, acidification causes oyster larvae shells to weaken, decreasing their survival.

Also, newly released data show between 4 and 8.3 billion oysters are estimated to have been lost as a result of the BP Deepwater Horizon oil disaster in 2010. These impacts, combined with ongoing impacts such as drought, floods, coastal development and hurricanes, make for a tough road for oysters.  The good news is that there are things we can do to protect oysters and the people that grow them, and we talked to John to learn more:

Ocean Conservancy: How did you get started with oysters, and what do you enjoy about it?

Dr. John Supan: During my master’s degree pursuit in the late 1970’s, I worked at a pilot oyster hatchery at the Gulf Coast Research Laboratory in Biloxi, MS.  There, I learned about breeding, rearing and maintaining oysters.  I also learned to build things, plumbing and wiring systems to support growing aquatic organisms which appeals to my “blue collar” background.  I most enjoy the daily sense of accomplishment—seeing things growing due to your work, as opposed to staring at a computer screen.

OC: Earlier this year, the oyster hatchery you direct was rebuilt and reopened.  Can you explain why this occurred, what’s new and what is its purpose?

JS: It’s been said that every storm cloud has a silver lining.  Hurricane Katrina wiped out our old facility, and due to the recent availability of funds, I began designing a new hatchery that could address the 26 years of problems I encountered while running a hatchery on Grand Isle.  Molluscan shellfish hatcheries and the larvae they raise are very vulnerable to poor water quality, so the new hatchery included features to address this.

The old hatchery was operated seasonally (May-September) because it was outdoors under a shed or building, so we could not heat and maintain hatchery seawater temperature.  That stymied algae and shellfish larval growth, increasing the likelihood of problems, so moving hatchery operations indoors with seawater heating was a major improvement.

The new hatchery has many new facility upgrades.  It’s now an elevated concrete and steel building that exceeds hurricane building codes.  We can better filter and treat incoming seawater.  Another new hatchery feature is a back-up power generator which is useful if power is unavailable, especially after hurricanes.  All these improvements will radically reduce our post-storm recovery response times from months to days.

The purpose of the building is dictated by its source of funding. The hatchery is part of a $17 million Louisiana Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) project of the BP oil spill.  It will be used for replenishing public oyster grounds and providing oyster larvae and seed for private oyster culture.

OC: Ocean acidification is a big concern particularly for Pacific Northwest shellfish.  How did it become a concern for you in the Gulf region?

JS: Acidification may not only be caused by carbon dioxide impact on our oceans, but also by riverine or storm water runoff in our estuaries.  Over the years, I have seen oyster larvae failures at Grand Isle and attributed it to unfavorable conditions with our ambient water. Researchers working with Whiskey Creek Oyster Hatchery in Oregon have seen similar larvae failures due to their more acidic water.  They discovered a simple solution to save their oysters: pumping a saturated solution of soda ash (an antacid) into the hatchery’s seawater lines to raise the pH to 8.25, which is ideal for oysters.  Learning from Whiskey Creek’s experience, we are using soda ash to do the same.

OC: What is your future hope for this hatchery, and oysters in Louisiana from an aquaculture and wild ecosystem perspective?

JS: It is important that we have a viable oyster fishery in Louisiana to help support our coastal economy, ecological services, and our culture and cuisine.  Wild oyster production is naturally cyclical, but hatcheries can help augment wild production by providing larvae for public and private oyster seed production.  Hatcheries can also support private oyster culture by improving survival, shell growth, meat yield, and overall production, which traditionally accounts for nearly 80% of the oysters harvested in Louisiana.

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Parlez vous oysters? http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/10/06/parlez-vous-oysters/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/10/06/parlez-vous-oysters/#comments Tue, 06 Oct 2015 19:15:54 +0000 Ryan Ono http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=10829

© YLM Picture

“Although each of the world’s countries would like to dispute this fact, we French know the truth: the best food in the world is made in France. The best food in France is made in Paris.” That is how “Ratatouille,” one of my favorite movies, begins. Now I don’t want to pick a fight over what city has the best food, but I think we can all agree that Paris has made a name for itself as a food destination and taste exporter. This December, Paris might become world-renowned for exporting something else that has a big impact on food: a global carbon pollution agreement.

For over twenty years, world leaders have struggled to tackle this problem that is ultimately caused by cars, airplanes, agriculture, factories, power plants and other sources at local levels. These leaders will soon meet again in Paris to negotiate a deal that holds countries accountable for their carbon emissions. This is a good thing for we know too well that carbon pollution in the atmosphere hurts the health of people, plants and animals, including the shellfish in our ocean. At Ocean Conservancy, I spend a lot of time thinking about how carbon dioxide emissions drives ocean acidification, and how increasingly corrosive seawater is impacting oysters and the whole ocean food web.

Seafood is an important part of food culture around the world, and it’s also a vital source of protein and jobs in many places. As a result, more and more people are talking about and taking action to tackle ocean acidification. Earlier this month I was in France talking with some of them at an oyster trade show. I was joined by US oyster growers and a US scientist to talk with members of the French oyster farming industry and research community about environmental threats such as acidification and disease. We told of the American experiences of mass die-offs, ongoing research, and work being done to limit the losses.

While the American oyster growers from the Pacific Northwest have certainly seen some of the most surprising and worst impacts of acidification so far, that doesn’t mean other growers are safe, and the East Coast and French growers are certainly starting to pay attention. The French especially have good reason — their industry is worth nearly $1 billion per year, employs thousands of people and supplies about 75% of all of Europe’s oysters. There’s a lot at stake, and there simply isn’t much data or monitoring available to determine when ocean acidification will impact them and how bad it will be.

Others around the world are trying to get a better handle on acidification as well, and as part of the “Pathway to Paris” movement to get a comprehensive international carbon emissions deal, acidification is getting more attention. On Monday during the second Our Ocean Conference in Valparaiso, Chile, the international community committed to expanding the network of marine sensors to better monitor and understand acidification.

The conversations between the American and French oyster growers and scientists were very promising, and as they continue, these individuals can help support the efforts of government officials working to reduce carbon emissions and protect their industry and our ocean. Let’s hope this progress on the ground sets off a groundswell of action to protect shellfish and other food sources worldwide this winter in Paris.

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