Ocean Currents » marine protected areas http://blog.oceanconservancy.org News, opinions, photos and facts from Ocean Conservancy Fri, 04 Sep 2015 17:29:39 +0000 en-US hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.4.2 Aftermath of Santa Barbara’s Oil Spill: What’s Happening in the Marine Environment? http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/06/04/aftermath-of-santa-barbaras-oil-spill-whats-happening-in-the-marine-environment/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/06/04/aftermath-of-santa-barbaras-oil-spill-whats-happening-in-the-marine-environment/#comments Thu, 04 Jun 2015 14:37:56 +0000 Greg Helms http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=10302

Oil on the beach at Refugio State Park in Santa Barbara, California, on May 19, 2015. (U.S. Coast Guard)

Nearly two weeks after a ruptured pipeline spilled 105,000 gallons of crude oil near Santa Barbara, hundreds of tired and oil-soaked workers are still on site working to scoop, boom and skim what they can of the 21,500 gallons estimated to have reached the ocean. As the slick spreads on the surface, and more oil sinks beneath the waves, a complicated environmental, chemical and biological process is unfolding in the waters of the Santa Barbara Channel. While every oil spill differs depending on local conditions, science and past history allow us to anticipate some of the long-term impacts to marine wildlife, habitats and communities.

Oil produced offshore of Santa Barbara is particularly heavy and thick, likely worsening the effects of external exposure to marine birds, mammals and fish.  These effects include smothering those animals that can’t move, and impairing the ability of some animals to insulate against cold water.  Marine birds that become oiled may lose the ability to fly, forage and feed their young. Highly mobile birds and marine mammals that frequent the ocean surface, where spilled oil initially collects, are especially vulnerable. They may be exposed to oil in one location only to sicken or die elsewhere.  The spill’s location in shallow, nearshore waters exposes a particularly rich array of wildlife and habitats to damage, including shorelines, sea grass, kelp beds, rocky reefs and kelp forests.

Spilled oil on the sea surface that is not captured by booms and skimmers will undergo changes as it’s agitated by waves and currents, and weathered by wind and sunlight.  Uncollected oil begins to degrade and form the orange emulsion “mousse” that is a familiar visual from past oil spills. During this weathering process, some of the oil will collect in low spots and around reefs and rocky outcrops.  This brings the smothering and oiling effects of the spill to the seabed, where the bulk of the near shore ocean’s animals are located.  This sub-surface oil is less visible and more difficult to clean up, and its effects may be the most persistent and profound posed by this tragic incident.

The weathering of spilled oil releases especially toxic aromatic hydrocarbons that can pass through the gills of fish, and enter nerve fibers causing paralysis. Chemical compounds that weather slowly may persist in the environment for months or years. Some will remain suspended in the water, later forming tar balls and “pancakes” that can continue to foul beaches and shorelines for years to come. Some will sink to the sea floor, where exposure of this decaying oil will threaten the growth and reproductive success of bottom dwellers such as sea urchins and sea stars. Oil buried in the sediment layer decays more slowly and can be re-released over time.

While oil is not entirely foreign to local ecosystems, nature is not accustomed to large volumes of crude oil being released suddenly. Several natural oil and gas seeps, which slowly leak some crude oil into the environment, exist in the Santa Barbara Channel. This does not mean local wildlife is immune to the toxic effects of oil; in fact, scientific experiments show this not to be the case.  However, there are numerous species of bacteria and fungi that have evolved to take advantage of the energy stored in petroleum.

NOAA

These microorganisms can aid in the long process of recovery by digesting hydrocarbons using special enzymes.  Blooms of these bacteria and fungi in response to the sudden availability of hydrocarbons is among the ways the marine ecosystem will absorb the oil spill over time, although there is much that is unknown about these processes.  The microbiology of marine systems is complicated, and the potential effects of such blooms may be considerable.

The Santa Barbara Channel is one of the most prolific and well-studied marine ecosystems in the world.  Both of these facts may contribute some hope for the eventual recovery from this oil spill.  While the area’s biological richness undoubtedly increases the count of marine animals injured and killed by the spill, scientists believe that more diverse and healthy ecosystems are more resilient and can recover more quickly and completely from damage and disturbance.

Furthermore, because the Channel has for decades served as a marine laboratory for scientists from nearby UC Santa Barbara and elsewhere, we have extensive information on ecosystem conditions before the spill, which will be critical in accurately  assessing the damage, informing mitigation and remediation efforts, and tracking results.  Studies accompanying Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) established in the area in 2012 brought significant additional information of this type to bear. Having this baseline will help guide restoration efforts, and ensure full accountability and compensation by the pipeline operator. Early efforts to survey damage to marine habitats and wildlife are crucial to long term restoration and are as essential as the clean-up efforts of response workers on the beach.

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2015/06/04/aftermath-of-santa-barbaras-oil-spill-whats-happening-in-the-marine-environment/feed/ 2
California’s MPAs: A Pilgrimage to Where it All Began http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/12/10/californias-mpas-a-pilgrimage-to-where-it-all-began/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/12/10/californias-mpas-a-pilgrimage-to-where-it-all-began/#comments Wed, 10 Dec 2014 13:00:15 +0000 Samantha Murray http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=9597

At 1,400 miles in length, the Great Barrier Reef is the largest living structure on our planet and consists of more than 600 types of hard and soft corals. Thousands of varieties of fish and molluscs call this breathtaking maze home. And if that isn’t enough to impress you: the Great Barrier Reef is so massive it can be seen from outer space. Yes…outer space! Needless to say, visiting this special place has been on my bucket list since I was a kid and saw my first film chronicling the explorations of Jacques Cousteau and the crew of the Calypso.

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) also served as inspiration for California’s process to establish a statewide network of marine protected areas (MPAs), an effort I’ve spent the better part of the last decade working to support. So when I was invited to speak about these areas at the IUCN World Parks Congress in Sydney this November, I jumped at the opportunity to attend, and to visit the Great Barrier Reef.

It was spectacular. I shared turquoise blue waters with blacktip reef and tawny nurse sharks, took flight with white-spotted eagle rays, and floated quietly in the presence of loggerhead sea turtles. Best of all, I got to rub elbows with the folks who make the GBRMP possible.  And I learned that they spend a lot of time thinking about the same issues as we do: education and outreach, partnerships and local engagement, long-term monitoring, and best practices for enforcement.

Because the Great Barrier Reef is a single, complicated structure with trillions of delicately balanced living and breathing components, it is also ground zero for our increasingly warm and more acidic ocean. What happens to the sensitive, exposed habitats of the Great Barrier Reef in the next couple of years may be a harbinger of what’s to come in the rest of our ocean in the coming decades.

Heron Island, where I spent much of my time, is a coral island that sits directly on the Reef, just north of Gladstone, Queensland, Australia, where the world’s fourth largest coal export terminal is located. The Island is home to nesting green sea turtles, giant shovel-nosed rays, and a 400-pound Queensland grouper named “Gus.” It’s also home to the University of Queensland Research Station, where scientists are studying the effects of carbon emissions and warmer temperatures on local corals.

These scientists know that the fossil fuels we are burning—like coal—don’t just go into the atmosphere; they are also absorbed by the ocean. When this carbon pollution is absorbed by seawater, it turns it more acidic. In fact, the ocean is 30% more acidic today than it was 150 years ago. And increasingly acidic water is bad news for animals that build shells, including corals.

Warming waters, also as a result of carbon dioxide, mean more bleaching and more algae and diseases that corals have to recover from. Scientists in the Great Barrier Reef are looking at what this all will mean for the Reef and for the ocean as a whole.

While the situation is very concerning, it’s my hope that our global community will be able to significantly reduce carbon pollution and ocean acidification to keep our ocean—and the wonders that reside within it— healthy.

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/12/10/californias-mpas-a-pilgrimage-to-where-it-all-began/feed/ 0
Eight Things You Need to Know About the New Pacific Monument http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/09/25/eight-things-you-need-to-know-about-the-new-pacific-monument/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/09/25/eight-things-you-need-to-know-about-the-new-pacific-monument/#comments Thu, 25 Sep 2014 15:46:13 +0000 Emily Woglom http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=9280

Photo: US Fish & Wildlife Service

The world’s largest network of no-take marine reserves was announced today; 7 islands and atolls make up this vast area, and President Obama is taking action today to hugely expand the area protected around 3 of them. Here are 8 reasons why today’s announcement is a huge deal:

1)     Protecting the ocean is bipartisan – Obama just built on President George W. Bush’s establishment of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument in January of 2009 before he left office. Obama’s announcement today expands that network from nearly 83,000 square miles to more than 490,000 square miles, or 370,000 square nautical miles.

2)     This marine monument is so big, the states of Texas, California, and New York COMBINED could fit within its borders.

3)     The monument spans the International Date Line; Wake Island inhabitants celebrate New Year before most people on Earth, and Johnston Atoll is one of the last places to sing Auld Lang Syne. It’s so big it can be in two days at once.


4)     There is LITERALLY no place like it on earth, because the Monument sits in all four hemispheres: north, south, east and west. It’s two different days; and winter and summer at the same time.

5)     Amazing ocean animals call these islands home. Seabirds, whales, silky and oceanic whitetip sharks all live in these waters. Scientists even recently discovered a new marine mammal in this area – the Palmyra beaked whale.

6)     Ocean Conservancy Board Member and National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence Enric Sala calls Kingman Reef and Palmyra Atoll his laboratory. He has led numerous expeditions to Palmyra Atoll and Kingman Reef to research sharks and other apex predators that make up this pristine ecosystem. His research has helped scientists figure out what a healthy reef should look like.

7)     The Monument was established using the Antiquities Act, first used by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, and has been used to designate the Grand Canyon, the Statue of Liberty and Devils Tower in Wyoming.

8)      The Administration listened to you – yes, YOU.  More than 170,000 messages were sent to the White House in support of the monument expansion – including nearly 20,000 from Ocean Conservancy members. This is your Monument!

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2014/09/25/eight-things-you-need-to-know-about-the-new-pacific-monument/feed/ 0
Marine Protected Areas Around the Globe: Looking Back, Moving Forward and Sharing Recipes http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/11/04/marine-protected-areas-around-the-globe-looking-back-moving-forward-and-sharing-recipes/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/11/04/marine-protected-areas-around-the-globe-looking-back-moving-forward-and-sharing-recipes/#comments Mon, 04 Nov 2013 18:00:08 +0000 Samantha Murray http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=6927 bouillabaisse med roulle

Photo: cyclonebill via Flickr

I’ve recently returned from the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress in Marseille, France. The experience of meeting so many different kinds of people, all equally passionate about the ocean, has inspired me. It’s planted a desire to follow up and exchange marine protected area stories—and recipes—from California with those from around the world.

To that end, please join me this Wednesday, Nov. 6, from 2-3 p.m. PST for a lively and fun Twitter Party, where you can share the global MPA stories you heard at IMPAC3. Missed the Congress? No problem—we’d like to hear your thoughts about MPAs, even if you weren’t there. Follow @ThePacificOcean, @OurOcean and @HealTheBay, or #MPAsWork to join the conversation (and win prizes!) this Wednesday.

Sarah Sikich (Heal the Bay) and I (Ocean Conservancy) will be leading the party, but it’s largely driven by participants. Topics will include: our evolving need to understand MPAs over the last decade, Sylvia Earle’s 50 Hope Spots, the value of urban MPAs, the issue of large MPAs and quantity versus quality, our shared MPA lessons from around the world and, of course, where we go from here.

That last issue is particularly exciting: how do we take what we’ve learned, distill it down to something instructive and move forward together? Well, just like a perfect Marseille bouillabaisse, there are a few essential ingredients that must be assembled to design and implement the best MPA in the world.

The first thing the classic Provençal dish requires is a good, local recipe. Everyone does it a little differently, and it’s important to respect local culture. This holds true for MPAs as well. Write something down—a mandate if you can get it—that lays out clear goals and objectives for your specific marine protected area.

Next, start with a long, slow simmer of local Mediterranean fish, spices and herbs. Likewise for your MPA, start with a local stakeholder simmer, though in this case it might be more like a slow stew—at least at first. Get fishermen and tribes and divers and everyone else who cares about the ocean involved early to think about setting up the new protections. Arm them with clear science guidelines to bookend the conversation and ensure the outcome follows the recipe closely enough to meet the goals of the MPA.

The perfect Marseille bouillabaisse requires fresh fish of certain types, from the firm-fleshed to the gelatinous to the shellfish. Likewise, the quality of what’s protected by your MPA, not just the square mileage, is important. Protection needs to include specific habitats—like rocky reef, bull kelp or deep submarine canyon—that will best benefit marine life.

Overall, it’s best to keep the fish stew simple. Don’t go experimenting with new flavors or convoluted ways to accommodate individual dietary restrictions. Likewise, create an MPA with simple rules. No-take areas are by far the easiest to understand and enforce. After that, tinkering with the rules can degrade the integrity of the overall outcome.

It’s important to note that the process doesn’t end when the stew is cooked! The way you serve and eat this delicacy is at least as important as the way you’ve made it. Similarly, an MPA effort mustn’t end once protections are created. Implementation is at least as important as adoption, and follow-through is of paramount importance. This includes education, to enhance MPA compliance among fishermen and local communities, and monitoring, to learn how your MPA is working. Engaging partners like citizens, tribes and fishermen in both enforcement and monitoring efforts is a great way to ensure your MPA has the stewardship necessary for the long haul.

The French dish is traditionally served with a side of croutons that are meant to be individually rubbed with fresh garlic and dipped in a mayonnaise-like rouille by the diner. If you’re new to the process, that may seem complicated, so if you see someone sitting next to you who doesn’t know how to eat it properly, help them out. Similarly, it’s crucial to help ocean users and decision-makers understand the new MPA, especially in the beginning. Signs and maps help people understand new regulations, and outreach to managers will help them integrate the new protections into future coastal and ocean management decisions so that the MPA can be enjoyed to its maximum benefit.

In the end, securing a science-based MPA with local community support and the stamina to stand the test of time follows a fairly simple recipe.  I hope these lessons, largely taken from last month’s Congress, can be applied by others.

Agree or disagree with this recipe for the best marine protected area (and bouillabaisse) in the world? Join us on Nov. 6 at 2 p.m. PST for our MPA Twitter Party to share your thoughts.

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/11/04/marine-protected-areas-around-the-globe-looking-back-moving-forward-and-sharing-recipes/feed/ 5
The Top Three Lessons From Marine Protected Areas Worldwide http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/24/the-top-three-lessons-from-marine-protected-areas-worldwide/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/24/the-top-three-lessons-from-marine-protected-areas-worldwide/#comments Thu, 24 Oct 2013 19:15:35 +0000 Samantha Murray http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=6875 Aerial view of Double Cone Rock State Marine Conservation Area

Photo: Kip Evans / Ocean Conservancy

The following is an excerpt from a post that originally appeared on National Geographic NewsWatch.

We may be from more than 80 countries, and we don’t all speak the same language, but after just two days, the 1,200 participants at the 3rd International Marine Protected Areas Congress in Marseille, France, are bonding. We all believe marine protected areas (MPAs) play an important role in the future of our ocean. Throw in some shared awe over a bowl of bouillabaisse (so. much. fish!) and a few bottles of Provençal rosé, and we’ve got more than enough fodder to fill five days of conversation.

The best part of these conversations is their authenticity and substance. Like a secret handshake we all learned during our years spent advocating for, designing, monitoring or otherwise implementing MPAs, we’ve got a shorthand that—in spite of our differences—allows us to speak in a single language about protecting our global ocean. As a result, three things keep resonating in the presentations and conversations at IMPAC3:

1. Our MPA stories are remarkably alike. They usually start with the realization that the local marine wildlife and habitat are not what they once were.

  • In Madagascar, people created the Velondriake MPA when local economically important octopus populations declined.
  • In the Mediterranean, artisanal fishermen were alarmed at the drastic changes in their local waters and supported the creation of the Marine Park in the Strait of Bonifacio.
  • In California, we recognized the decline of local rockfish and the importance of rocky reefs and passed the Marine Life Protection Act, a law which called for the nation’s first statewide network of MPAs and resulted in protection of 16 percent of the state’s 1,100-mile coastline.

Read more at National Geographic NewsWatch.

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/24/the-top-three-lessons-from-marine-protected-areas-worldwide/feed/ 7
California Delegation Shines Spotlight on Marine Protected Areas at International Conference http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/18/california-delegation-shines-spotlight-on-marine-protected-areas-at-international-conference/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/18/california-delegation-shines-spotlight-on-marine-protected-areas-at-international-conference/#comments Fri, 18 Oct 2013 15:00:53 +0000 Samantha Murray http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=6846 Aerial view of San Miguel Island of the Channel Islands, California

Photo: Jonathan Hubbell / Photo Contest 2011

This blog originally appeared on Surfrider’s Coastal Blog and was authored by:  Samantha Murray of Ocean Conservancy, Sarah Sikich of Heal the Bay and Stefanie Sekich-Quinn of Surfrider.

If you’ve been lucky enough to go for a dive, surf or kayak at the Channel Islands, it’s hard not to be captivated by the cathedral kelp forests, large fish cruising the reef and clean waves breaking under your surfboard. These islands, along with special places throughout the entire California coast, enjoy protections that allow the marine wildlife inside to thrive.

Like underwater parks, the marine protected areas (MPAs for short) here act as safe havens for marine life and giant kelp forests that call southern California’s coastline home. And the good news is that globally, MPAs are on the rise. There are over 6,000 MPAs worldwide, yet less than 2 percent of our ocean is protected.

Next week, ocean scientists, policymakers, leaders and conservation professionals will be convening in France to share ideas about how to foster MPA effectiveness around the world at the 2013 International Marine Protected Areas Congress. And California’s story will be among those in the fold.

A delegation of California ocean leaders will be speaking about California’s MPAs and showcasing the Marine Life Protection Act as a model for public engagement and science integration in MPA design, as well as soaking up global MPA stories from around the world.

We wish our suitcases were big enough to bring all of California’s MPA stewards with us! Unfortunately that’s not the case, so we look forward to bringing the Congress to you virtually. Check out this WebTV link to catch live streaming of the plenary sessions and other Congress happenings.

You can join the conversation by following us on Twitter and Instagram to read daily blogs, see photos and video, and learn about how communities are building MPAs around the world.

Next time you submerge in a California MPA to enjoy the majestic kelp forest, just think that at the same time someone else might be enjoying the corals along Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, whale sharks in Mozambique or diving iguanas in the Galapagos.

By listening to stories from MPAs around the world, we hope to learn how we can be better stewards of our local underwater parks. And by sharing our California stories with a global audience, we may even teach a few lessons of our own, helping to advance the goal of enhanced MPAs worldwide.

Read more perspectives on why Surfrider thinks MPAs are not only good for ocean ecosystems, but also for recreation here and here.

]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/10/18/california-delegation-shines-spotlight-on-marine-protected-areas-at-international-conference/feed/ 8
9 Great California Coastal Birding Sites http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/09/16/9-great-california-coastal-birding-sites/ http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/09/16/9-great-california-coastal-birding-sites/#comments Mon, 16 Sep 2013 18:00:08 +0000 Jennifer Savage http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/?p=6662

This article originally appeared at Audubonmagazine.org.

Whether novice or expert, birdwatchers in California delight in the avian abundance along the state’s coast. California also boasts the nation’s only statewide network of marine protected areas, providing not only gorgeous places to seek out a stunning diversity of birds but insurance that their most important breeding and feeding grounds have extra protection.

Below is a list of the top bird-watching spots at these “ocean parks,” plus highlights. Additionally, there is information about visiting, plus a link to where you can learn more.

1. Point St. George Reef Offshore State Marine Conservation Area

Crescent City
Viewing site, interpretive panel on Pebble Beach Drive, just south of Point St. George

Originally inhabited by the Tolowa Dee-ni’, California’s northernmost coast boasts some of the most dramatic scenery in the state and is dotted with Audubon-designated Important Bird Areas. A wide range of bird species live and migrate around nearby Lake Earl, and the profusion continues at sea, where exposed rocks and underwater ledges make up the St. George Reef. Reaching the protected area requires a boat, but visitors can experience similar conditions from the safety of the shoreline just south of the point, where Castle Rock National Wildlife Refuge sits.

The refuge is a modest 14 acres, yet it supports several hundred thousand seabirds each year. Take a spotting scope to Pebble Drive from February to mid-April to catch the dawn fly-off of Aleutian cackling geese. Observe one of the largest breeding populations—100,000—of common murres making their nests along the island’s cliffs. Castle Rock is also home to three species of cormorants, pigeon guillemots, Cassin’s and rhinoceros auklets, Leach’s and fork-tailed storm-petrels, and tufted puffins.

More info: fws.gov/humboldtbay/castlerock.html

2. South Humboldt Bay State Marine Recreation Management Area

Loleta
Park along the South Spit or at the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge

Visitors come from all over the world to watch the birds of Humboldt Bay. More than 250 species—and world-class views—make the bay, a global IBA, endlessly enjoyable. Peak season for most species of waterbirds and raptors is late fall through mid-spring. Aleutian cackling geese, Pacific brant, and migratory shorebirds have a shorter window, peaking from March to late April. In summer birders can find terns, cormorants, and pelicans as well as resident egrets, herons, and migratory songbirds, including various warblers, sparrows, and swallows.

The very best way to birdwatch on the bay is by kayak (for rentals, check with Hum-Boats, on Woodley Island). Close to the protected area is the Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, in southern Humboldt Bay, offering an interpretive center that describes local Humboldt Bay habitats and wildlife. Visitors can also view birds from the South Spit, one of the two peninsulas separating Humboldt Bay from the Pacific. Because tides have great influence on which birds are seen when, make sure to check the tides before going.

More info: blm.gov/ca/st/en/fo/arcata/south_spit.html and fws.gov/humboldtbay/

3. Point Reyes State Marine Reserve

Marin County, between Tomales Bay and Bolinas Lagoon
Travel via Highway 1, Sir Francis Drake Boulevard or Point Reyes/Petaluma Road

Guidebooks refer to Point Reyes as a little piece of “civilized wilderness.” The point, a global IBA, is just 35 miles north of San Francisco, but the sense of remoteness is a world away from the bustle of the city. Approximately 470 bird species have been noted in Point Reyes National Seashore, a unit of the National Park Service. Many of those have been very rare visitors, far off course during their spring or fall migrations, but the birding can be rewarding at any time of year. The Point Reyes Bird Observatory is located in the southern portion of the park and offers mist-netting demonstrations, a nature trail, and monthly trips to various locations around Marin County. Additionally, visitors can fish, kayak, ride horses, camp, or stay at the park hostel.

More info: nps.gov/pore/index.htm

Read about six more great birding sites on the California Coast at Audubonmagazine.org.

Photo credits for slideshow:

  1. Tufted Puffin: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  2. Wandering Tattler: Dominic Sherony via Creative Commons
  3. White-faced Ibis: Linda Tanner via Creative Commons
  4. Peregrine Falcon: Juan Lacruz via Creative Commons
  5. Cassin’s Auklet: Duncan Wright via Creative Commons
  6. Black Turnstone: Michael Baird via Creative Commons
  7. Storm Petrel: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  8. Yellow-billed Loon: Len Blumin via Creative Commons
  9. Black Oystercatcher: Dick Daniels via Creative Commons
  10. Long-eared Owl: Gregory Smith  via Creative Commons
]]>
http://blog.oceanconservancy.org/2013/09/16/9-great-california-coastal-birding-sites/feed/ 3